flu’ is used to refer to Influenza, which is a respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. This illness occurs mostly during winter and fall and can easily spread from one person to another through the respiratory droplets from an infected person’s sneeze or cough.
www.bosterbio.com makes us understand that Influenza is different from the common cold. It can cause severe illness and worsen an individual’s chronic medical problems such as diabetes, asthma, cardiac problems, and can cause death.
TYPES OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
TYPES OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
The influenza virus is of four types, namely: Influenza A, B, C, and D. Amongst the four types of influenza virus, Influenza A and B are the most common, contagious, and known to cause annual epidemic seasonal infections. Let’s look at the differences between Influenza A and B.
This type of Influenza has the most ability among others to cause a pandemic. This is because it has lots of potential hosts giving the virus the ability to mutate over a short period, causing the emergence of new strains.
Vectors of Influenza A
Influenza A can survive in many species, and so has lots of vectors. These vectors include birds, humans, pigs.
Influenza A virus can be subdivided, giving rise to what we know today as subtypes of Influenza A virus. These subtypes are formed from the combination of hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The combinations of these two proteins found on the virus’s surface gave rise to 18 different H subtypes and 11 different N subtypes. The common subtypes, which are H1N1 and H3N2, are often transmitted seasonally in humans.
Reports had it that in 2015 and 2017, the H3N2 virus spread to dogs in China and Florida, respectively.
Unlike Influenza A, Influenza B cannot be divided into subtypes and can only be seen in human beings. Although influenza B has no subtypes, it has different strains and specific viral lineages.
HOW TO NAME AN INFLUENZA VIRUS STRAIN
Naming an Influenza virus strain is quite complicated and is dependent on the following information about the strain:
- Type of Influenza (A, B, C, or D)
- Strain number
- H or N subtype (applicable for Influenza A virus)
- Geographical origin
- The year in which the virus was isolated
- Species of origin
Let’s discuss Influenza A and B under their differentiating factors.
Influenza A is confirmed to be the most prevalent during the flu season. An estimated amount of 75 percent during every flu season is mostly Influenza A cases, while Influenza B takes up the remaining 25 percent.
During the start of flu season, Influenza A cases a seen to be prevalent, while Influenza B cases are mostly detected towards the end of flu season.
Both flu types are extremely contagious that you can contact any of them if an infected person sneezes or coughs six feet away from you. Both Influenza A and B can be contracted by touching an infected surface and touching your nose or mouth afterward.
Although a person infected with either of the two influenza types and has no complications can have symptoms that last for about one or two weeks and recovers after. However, the Influenza A virus has accounted for more hospitalizations and deaths in the elderly and children than any other influenza type. This is because some severe cases of the flu are caused by certain Influenza A subtypes that are deadlier than the rest.
A recent study counteracted past attachment of higher virulence to Influenza A when it discovered that both influenza types have a similar rate of virulence and can cause the same amount of illnesses and deaths.
The treatment options for influenza infection are the same regardless of the type. Even though there are treatments to relieve the symptoms, there are no treatments to completely get rid of the virus. The treatments help you heal from the symptoms until your body clears the virus naturally. Here are the common antiviral drugs that your doctor may prescribe:
- Peramivir (Rapivab)
- Zanamivir (Relenza)
- Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
- Baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza)
These antivirals are not effective for treating Influenza C infections.
The Influenza A and B viruses cause similar symptoms and have so many similarities, more than they do, differences. Recent technological advancements have proven the CA-125 test kit to be of enormous help to medical practitioners when it comes to diagnosis of the flu. Find more information on such testing kits and BDNF Elisa kits, consult Boster Bio today.